Because dung is produced more or less continuously by pastoral livestock throughout the year one species of dung beetle alone is incapable of achieving suitable control. Eleven species were chosen with primary selection criterion based on daily flight activity, followed by seasonal activity, soil preference and predicted distribution.
Copris lunaris & C. hispanus hispanus seasonal activity is complementary. Their seasonal activities don’t significantly overlap with the activity period of one dying out as the other becomes active.
Dawn and dusk species:
Bubas bison in only winter active species with Geotrupes spiniger activety extending into winter,
Geotrupes spiniger & B. bison have unique soil preferences,
Onthophagus (Digitonthophagus) gazella & Onitis alexis alexis have different climatic requirements
Euoniticellus fulvus & O. binodis have unique soil preferences.
Onthophagus (Paleonthophagus) vacca & O. taurus have different seasonal activity patterns and climatic requirements.